FLAP (OSSEOUS) SURGERY
This procedure is indicated where scaling and root planing is unable to resolve periodontal pocketing and inflammation. Using local anesthetic to numb the area, the gums are gently released from around the tooth. This allows access for thorough cleaning of the roots below the gum level and correction of any bony deformities. This procedure has long standing success in controlling periodontal disease, facilitating good oral hygiene and preventing tooth loss.
Laser treatment of periodontal disease is a recently developed technology that provides similar benefits to flap surgery with minimal bleeding or discomfort. It utilizes laser technology to specifically target periodontally diseased tissue and bacteria without the need for a scalpel or sutures. In some cases, the laser protocol is able to regenerate bone, cementum and periodontal ligament tissue that was lost due to periodontal disease.
Exposure of the roots of the teeth (recession) can be caused by traumatic tooth brushing, periodontal disease, tooth malpositioning as well as many other known clinical scenarios. Recession can be associated with chronic irritation, cold sensitivity and esthetic concern. Gum grafting uses donor tissue from the roof of the mouth, which is transplated to the site of the recession. It can be used to thicken the tissue around the recession defect and/or cover the exposed root.
SCALING AND ROOT PLANING
Scaling and root planing is the first step in the treatment of periodontal disease. Its main objective is to remove plaque and tartar/calculus from the tooth above and below the gums. In mild cases of periodontal disease scaling and root planing will resolve the signs and symptoms of periodontal disease and no further treatment wil be necessary.
A "gummy smile" can be the result of overgrowth of the gums, a long maxilla, a tight upper lip or altered passive eruption. Altered passive eruption describes a clinical situation where the gum tissue fails to migrate to the appropriate level at the base of the tooth. Gum recontouring is a simple procedure used to remove excess gum tissue to expose the part of the tooth that is burried beneath the gum. Removal of this tissue allows for a more esthetically-pleasing smile.
Crown lengthening is often required when a tooth is fractured or it requires a new crown or restoration. Crown lengthening exposes the edge of the restoration that is located deep below the gum tissue and exposes more tooth structure. This facilitates provision of a final crown or restoration with a tight fit and long term stability surrounded by tissue with good periodontal health.
Bony deformitites caused by periodontal disease may be ammenable to a form of treatment called bone regeneration. In this form of treatment lost bone, cementum and periodontal ligament can be "regrown" using a variety of different materials. Successful treatment using this technology relies on good case selection. Bone loss around a missing tooth/teeth can also be regenerated using similar technology to facilitate implant placement.
One of the treatment options for replacing a missing tooth/teeth is with a dental implant, an artificial root that is placed within the bone. After a period of healing, a tooth is placed onto the artificial root. Implant therapy offers the advantage of preserving the bone in the area, allowing for normal chewing and function and has a documented history of high success. Implants can be used to replace single teeth or multiple teeth and can stabilize partial or complete dentures. Implants in some cases can be placed at the same time of tooth extraction.